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黎锦:海岛织女的脱贫梦

在中国海南省中南部腹地,有一个特殊的“文化社区”——番茅村,中国政府与联合国开发计划署合作文化减贫项目示范村。黎锦工艺在这里得以规范、系统地传承并为人们创造着财富。透过黎族妇女的织机、针线,人们可以窥见中国与联合国合作减贫40年的精彩缩影。

In the hinterland of South Central Hainan Province of China, in Fanmao village, there exists a special “cultural community” The hamlet is an example of cultural poverty alleviation project of the Chinese government and the United Nations development program. The Li brocade tradition here has been standardised and passed on to others to generate wealth. The weaving machines and needles of the ethnic Li women tell the story of 40 years of cooperation between China and the United Nations to reduce poverty.

黎锦,海南岛黎族民间织锦。制作精巧,色彩鲜艳,其内容主要是反映黎族社会生产、爱情婚姻、宗教活动及传说或美好形象等。然而由于掌握这项技艺的妇女人数急剧减少,黎锦于2009年被联合国教科文组织列为首批急需保护的非物质文化遗产。如今,在番茅村,黎锦成功地从濒临消失的非遗资源转化成为了人们的生计支撑。

Li Brocade is a folk embroidery by Li nationality in Hainan Island. Its contents depict tradition, love and marriage, religious activities, legends or beautiful images of Li nationality. As the number of weaker mastering the skill dwindled over decades, UNESCO listed the brocade in its first endangered cultural heritage group in 2009. Numerous efforts were made to preserve this slice of culture and today Li brocade has successfully transformed from an endangered intangible cultural heritage resource into a livelihood support for the community.

2012年,联合国支持的中国少数民族文化产业可持续发展项目之一“海南省黎锦工艺保护和发展”,经过考察落地番茅村。在当地政府的支持和项目人员、专家指导下,人们成立了黎锦协会,由此,黎锦的传承变得更为系统性和有组织性,一改黎锦仅有少量传承人的传承形势。在协会的推动下,还举办了“黎锦文化进课堂”、黎锦设计大赛等系列宣传活动,使得越来越多岛外的人们开始欣赏到黎族文化和黎锦工艺品的魅力。

In 2012, “Hainan Li Brocade craft protection and development”, one of the sustainable development projects of China’s ethnic cultural industry supported by the United Nations, was launched in Fanmao village. With the support of the local government and the guidance of project personnel and experts, the Li Brocade Association was set up. As a result, the inheritance of Li brocade became more systematic and organized, which allowed the skill to be passed on from the very few inheritors that had been left. The association undertook a series of promotional activities, holding events such as “Li Brocade culture into the classroom” and “Li brocade design competition”. This helped draw the attention of people outside the island to the charm of Li Culture and Li Brocade crafts.

黎锦也成为了织女们最为重要的收入来源。根据项目规划,人们成立了黎族传统纺染织绣技艺传习馆、黎族织绣传习所等企业,将妇女们动员起来,系统学习、培训黎锦工艺,不仅解决了她们的就业问题,也为保护、传承黎锦工艺注入新生力量。数据显示,2015年番茅村黎族织绣传习所年销售额达20万余元,织女平均月收入近2000元,产品销往新加坡等国。2019年,黎锦亮相联合国教科文组织巴黎总部,文化扶贫增加的不仅是织女们的收入,更有她们的荣誉感、成就感和文化自信。

Li Brocade is now among the most important sources of income for the weavers. According to the project plan, Li nationality traditional spinning, dyeing, weaving and embroidery skills training hall and other enterprises have been set up to mobilize women to systematically study and train in Li Brocade technology. This has not only generated employment, but also injected new strength into the protection and inheritance of Li Brocade technology. According to data, in 2015, the annual sales of the Li nationality weaving and embroidery training institute in Fanmao village reached more than 200,000 yuan and the average monthly income of women weavers was nearly 2,000 yuan. The products were exported to Singapore and other countries. In 2019, Li Brocade was exhibited at UNESCO’s headquarters in Paris. Cultural poverty alleviation will not just increase the income of the weaver girls, but also instil in them a sense of honor, achievement and cultural confidence.

早在1993年,中国就成立了文化扶贫委员会,而黎锦的成功印证了中国立足国情、积极探索具有中国特色的减贫道路的正确性。2020年是联合国成立75周年,中国与联合国合作减贫已走过40年的光辉历程。40年来,中国与联合国在文化减贫、产业减贫、教育减贫、科技减贫等各方面展开大量合作,为了“消除贫困”这个全人类的目标,双方都贡献了自己的智慧与力量。    

As early as 1993, China set up a cultural poverty alleviation committee. Li Brocade’s success has confirmed that China’s active exploration of poverty alleviation with focus on Chinese characteristics is a step in the right direction. The year 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. China and the United Nations have seen a glorious course of poverty reduction for 40 years. Over the past four decades, China and the United Nations have continued their collaboration in poverty reduction in culture, industry, education, science and technology. Both sides have contributed their wisdom and strength to the goal of “eliminating poverty” for all mankind.  

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策划:高志伟       后期:高志伟

出品人:王晓辉
总监制:薛立胜
监    制:戴 凡
制片人:杨 丹
主    编:宋若冰
编    导:刘璟 吴婧 白玥 孙磊 高志伟 佟明月
出    品:中国互联网新闻中心

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