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傣医药:奇花异草皆是“药”

202110月,联合国生物多样性大会(COP15)在云南昆明召开,一项项成果令人欢欣鼓舞。参会的人们眼前是云南繁盛的花海,餐桌上是云南诱人的美食——但你可知道,这眼中所见、口中所尝,里面可能都有“药”? 

In October 2021, the UN Biodiversity Conference (COP15) was held in Kunming, Yunnan Province, and saw great participation. A sea of flowers and attractive Yunnan cuisine on the table stole the show. But do you know what you see and taste could have a therapeutic effect?

 

没错,正是“傣药”。

Yes, it's "Dai medicine".


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中国的傣族主要生活在云南省,其传统医药发展长达千年,是中国四大民族医药之一。傣医用药既有内服也有外用,其中还有一些独特的治疗方法,例如直接让患者睡在药上的神奇疗法。而所有这些都离不开大自然的馈赠——云南丰富的药用植物资源。

The Dai people in China mainly live in Yunnan Province where traditional medicine has developed for thousands of years. It is one of the four major ethnic medicines in China. Dai medicine has both internal and external uses, including some unique treatment methods. For example, they let the patients sleep directly on the medicine. Yunnan’s rich medicinal plant resources are a gift of nature.


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云南省西双版纳傣族自治州是中国热带生态系统保存最完整的地区,西双版纳的热带雨林是公认的“世界自然基因库”。傣药的生长与生物多样性环境密不可分,每一个傣族寨子都是一个长满了傣药材的生物多样性群落。连傣家人作为薪柴使用的铁刀木,都是一味傣药,其功效是清热、止血、化瘀,可以治疗胃痛;雨林中野生的兰花种类繁多,几乎所有品种的兰花均可入药。西双版纳的热带雨林中现在已知的傣药品种达2000余种。傣族家庭每年食物中的药用植物就不少于百种,久而久之,傣家人长寿者较多。

The Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province is the region with the most intact tropical ecosystem in China. The tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is recognized as the "world natural gene bank". The growth of Dai medicinal herbs is closely related to the biodiversity environment. Every Dai stockade is a biodiversity community full of Dai medicinal herbs. Even the Cassia siamea Lam wood commonly used by the Dai family as firewood is a Dai medicine, which has the effects of clearing heat, hemostasis and removing blood stasis and can treat stomach pain. There are many kinds of wild orchids in the rainforest. Almost all kinds of orchids can be used as medicine. There are more than 2,000 known Dai medicine varieties in the tropical rainforest of Xishuangbanna. Dai families have more than 100 kinds of medicinal plants in their food every year. It is no wonder then that Dai people live longer.


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经过上千年的实践,傣家人总结出傣药的疗效与其生长环境密切相关。例如凡生长在悬崖陡壁和带肿节的药物,大都可治疗骨折、跌打损伤等病症;凡生长在湖泊、水边的药物大都可用于治疗风湿麻木、水肿等病症;凡开红花、带红色的药物多可作为补益气血和止血;凡开白花、流白浆的药物,多可用来镇静安神、解毒。

After thousands of years of practice, Dai people have concluded that the curative effect of Dai medicine is closely related to its growth environment. For example, drugs that grow on cliffs and steep walls and with swollen joints can mostly treat fractures and other bone injuries. Most of the drugs grown in lakes and water can be used to treat rheumatism, numbness, edema; Most of the drugs with red flowers can be used to replenish Qi and blood and stop bleeding; The medicine with white flowers and white pulp can be used to calm the nerves and detoxify.


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可见,生物多样性是傣医药的立身之本。在经济社会发展的过程中,云南村寨的生物多样性也曾遭到了一定程度的破坏。如今,云南积极“退胶还林”,以极具原始特色的曼远村为例,家家户户在退出的橡胶林地和香蕉地上种植傣药为主、具有较高经济价值的高山植物,缓解了土地退化,有助于傣医药的发展,同时达到了让村民增收致富的“多赢”。

It can be seen that biodiversity is the foundation of Dai medicine. In the process of economic and social development, the biodiversity of Yunnan villages has also been damaged to some extent. Now, Yunnan is actively "returning glue to forest". Taking Manyuan village with very primitive characteristics as an example, every household has planted alpine plants with high economic value dominated by Dai medicine on the withdrawn rubber forest land and banana land, which has alleviated land degradation and contributed to the development of Dai medicine. At the same time, it has achieved the "win-win" goal of increasing villagers' income.


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多样的药用植物不但保障了当地少数民族的健康繁衍,也藏着保障人类健康的“秘方”。1022日是“世界传统医药日”,随着生物多样性的科学保护、各类研究机构的设立、民间药方的全面收集、与泰国等国的交流合作,古老的傣医药发展进入了新的历史阶段,焕发新的生机。

A variety of medicinal plants not only ensure the healthy reproduction of local ethnic minorities, but also create the "secret recipe" to protect human health. October 22 is celebrated as the "World Traditional Medicine Day". With the scientific protection of biodiversity, the establishment of various research institutions, the comprehensive collection of folk prescriptions, exchanges and cooperation with Thailand and other countries, the development of ancient Dai medicine has entered a new stage and is growing by leaps and bounds.


策划:吴婧       后期:白玥

出品人:王晓辉
总监制:薛立胜
监    制:戴 凡
制片人:杨 丹
主    编:宋若冰
编    导:刘璟 吴婧 白玥 孙磊 高志伟 佟明月
出    品:中国互联网新闻中心

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