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沙拉洛:彝族少女的独特仪式


往日宁静的四川凉山古老的彝族村落,今天显得格外热闹,还未成年的彝族姑娘被表哥背到家门口的一颗树下,与树举行婚礼。这是一场没有新郎的婚礼,在村中德高望重的长辈的见证下,聆听长辈们为她唱出属于她的出嫁曲。

There is a flurry of activity in the quiet ancient village of Yi in Liangshan, Sichuan today. A young Yi girl is carried by her cousin to her betrothed whostands near the door of her house. The “groom” is particularly tall, verdant, and in this case, not human. The girl will be married to a tree as all Yi girls do when theycome of age. The ceremony is presided over by venerable elders who sing festive wedding songs for her.


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在中国,彝族少女成年时要举行一种神秘的“成人”仪式,彝语叫“沙拉洛”,意为脱去童年的裙子,换上成年的裙子。彝族“沙拉洛”仪式从产生到现在,至少也有数万年的历史了。是彝族女子由童年到成年的标志。

In China, when they enter their adulthood, girls of Yi nationality will attend a mysterious ceremony called “salalo” in local Yi language, meaning to change the childhood skirtintoan adult one. Thesalaloceremony, which dates back to tens of thousands of years, mark the transition of Yi women from childhoodto adulthood.

 


“沙拉洛”是彝族女人的一生中最重要的三件大事之一,与今后的婚礼、最后的葬礼同样重要。“换裙”的年龄,因人而异,大多在13岁到17岁之间,当地习俗都会选择单数年龄。举行仪式的季节一般选定在秋冬季节,举行的具体日期,则要请老人定下吉日佳期。

Salalois one of the three most important events in the life of Yi women, as important as the actual weddingand the funeral. The age at which this ceremony is celebrated differs from household to household, but it is generally performed between the ages of 13 and 17. The age is dependent on local customs. The season chosen is generallyautumn and winter. The elderly pick an auspicious day for the tradition.


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“换裙”这天,主人家像过节一样喜气洋洋,要杀猪,大宴宾客,招待亲邻。按照当地俗规,举行“换裙”仪式时,绝不允许任何男子在场。彝族少女在“换裙”之前,梳的是独辫,耳朵挂的贝壳耳坠,穿的是二节童裙。仪式开始,原先的独辫要改梳成双辫,并要戴头帕,挂上金银耳坠,从外加上一条三节拖地长裙,然后脱下短裙就算是完成最重要的一项了。

The host family slays pigs to throw a grand feast and welcome relatives and neighbors on the day.According to local customs, no man is allowed to be present during the "skirt replacing" ceremony. Before"replacing skirts", Yi girls wear single braids, shell earrings and children’s skirts with two sections. At the beginning of the ceremony, the single braid is combed into double braids, a scarf is placed on thehead, gold and silver earrings are worn along with a three-section long skirt. Discarding the child’s skirt is the most important part of the ritual.

 

彝族人称“换童裙”是一场“不见新郎的婚礼”。彝族以前盛行早婚,换裙和结婚会一起举行。因为现代的姑娘不可能在17岁之前就结婚,所以都要举行“假婚”仪式。在这个仪式中不同的人会选择将树、石磨、门槛等被视为重要的物件假设为女孩的丈夫,举行意象的“婚礼”。

The Yi community calls the custom of “replacing children's skirts” a “wedding without the groom”. In the past, early marriage was popular in the community. SoSalalowas held along with the wedding. In today’s age, women are unlikely to get married before the age of 17, so the family has to hold a symbolic wedding ceremony. In this ceremony, people will choose to treat the tree, stone mill, threshold or other such objects as the girl’s husband and hold a symbolic wedding.


仪式结束后,男子才能参加欢宴。大家席地而坐,愉快地吃着砣砣肉、荞馍,开怀畅饮。而“换童裙”后的彝族少女,也准备要开始享受恋爱了。

Once the ceremony is over, men are allowed to participate in the feast. Everyone sits on the ground to munch onsome mound meat, buckwheat bread and spirits. After the ceremony, girls are ready to seek and enjoy love.

策划:吴婧       后期:白玥

出品人:王晓辉
总监制:薛立胜
监    制:戴 凡
制片人:杨 丹
主    编:宋若冰
编    导:刘璟 吴婧 白玥 孙磊 高志伟 佟明月
出    品:中国互联网新闻中心

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